# Hydraulics

**Culverts**

Calculates the flowrate for a series of headwater elevations for a culvert. The user must provide the diameter, length, invert elevations, coefficients, and tailwater elevations.

**Sewer Pipes**

Calculates one of the four variables (flowrate, diameter, roughness coefficient, or pipe slope), based on knowing the other three.

**Man-Made Channels**

For a trapezoidal, rectangular, or triangular shaped channel, the program calculates one of the six variables (flowrate, flow depth, bottom width, side slope, roughness coefficient, or channel slope), based on knowing the other five. The wetted area, wetted perimeter, flow velocity, Froude’s Number, and flow regime are also displayed.

**Natural Channels**

For a channel of any cross-section shape, the program calculates one of the three variables (flow depth, flowrate, or channel slope), based on knowing the other two. Cross-section points and elevations must be entered and the roughness coefficient can vary between each point. The wetted area, wetted perimeter, flow velocity, Froude’s Number, and flow regime are also displayed.

**Backwater Flow**

Calculates the backwater profile for a trapezoidal, rectangular, or triangular shaped channel. The flowrate, channel shape, channel slope, roughness coefficient, beginning water surface elevation, and invert elevations must be entered. The backwater results are calculated based on a horizontal interval selected by the user. Results displayed are water surface elevation, flow depth, velocity and slope of the energy line at each interval.

**Equivalent Diameters**

Calculates the required diameter of up to 10 parallel pipes that are equivalent to a single known pipe. Three sets of results are shown based on separate methodologies; equal area, equal hydraulic radius and equal conveyance.

**Equivalent Lengths**

Calculates one of the four variables (diameter, friction loss coefficient, minor loss coefficient, or equivalent length of pipe), based on knowing the other three.

**Orifices**

Calculates one of the four variables (flowrate, orifice area, discharge coefficient, or headwater elevation), based on knowing the other three. Elevations for the center of the orifice and tailwater must also be entered.

**Weirs**

Calculates one of the four variables (flowrate, weir length, discharge coefficient, or head over the weir), based on knowing the other three.

**Series Pipes**

For any provided flowrate, this program will calculate the friction head loss, minor head loss, and velocity for a series of pipes flowing full.

**Parallel Pipes**

Calculates the division of a total flowrate in up to 10 parallel pipes flowing full. The pipes are all assumed to begin at one location and reconnect at another single location. Results include the flowrate and flow velocity in each pipe and the head loss across the system of pipes.

**Pumped Systems**

Calculates the flowrate and head losses in a pump supplied transmission line. Additionally, the Polynomial Equations program can be used to calculate required pump curve coefficients.

**Pressure Surge**

Calculates a set of pressure head increases for a series of velocity changes in a pipe of known diameter, wall thickness, material properties and restraint type. The pressure surge’s wave speed is also calculated.

**Thrust Forces**

Calculates the magnitude and direction of the thrust forces at a pipe junction for up to 10 pipes of varying diameter and direction, including horizontal and vertical angles.

**Buoyant Forces**

Calculates the buoyant forces upward, the weight forces downward, and the factor of safety for a submerged rectangular (vault) or cylindrical (manhole) object. Shapes can be combinations of many prisms. The weights of each prism can be entered as a total weight or weight per square foot of wall.

**Reservoir Routing**

Calculates the outflow hydrograph based on a known inflow hydrograph and a stage/storage/outflow chart for a reservoir or detention facility.

(Manning's Equation is used in the hydraulics programs that calculate friction headlosses.)